2020, Lockdown, News

Coronavirus Lockdown – Week 6 – HUBBLE

Distracted, I find this page on the Hubble.  1922 Edwin Hubble, at the Pasadena Observatory, measured the distances and velocities of galaxies, which led to his discovery of the expanding Universe.

Pillars of creation

Work began in 1982 on a 2.4 meter mirror, and in April 1990, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope was launched into Earth orbit from the Kennedy Space Center.  Then came the flaw: in June 1990, Hubble’s first images reveal a flaw in the telescope’s primary mirror, preventing it from focusing. However it was still providing results that were impossible for ground-based telescopes, with high resolution and spectra that led to new research. Algorithms helped interpret.

Correction was not until 1993 and Hubble has been visited by astronauts four times in order to make repairs and add new instruments.

Blackholes became Hubble’s specialisty: November 1992 image of a giant disk of cold gas and dust fueling a possible black hole at the core of galaxy NGC 4261. In May 1994 Existence of Supermassive Black Holes Confirmed Conclusive evidence confirms existence of gravitationally collapsed objects predicted by Einstein.

PLANETS: May 1991 Hubble’s First Images of Jupiter, black and white recording the detailed evolution of Jovian weather.
In January 1992, astronomers confirmed the existence of planets outside our solar system. December 1994 Hubble Observes a New Saturn Storm. June 14, 1995  Hubble Observes Neptune, January 7, 1998 Hubble Provides a Clear Image of Saturn’s Aurora. April 11, 2006 Hubble Captures Images of ‘Tenth Planet’ Slightly Larger Than Pluto The finding causes astronomers to cast doubt on how to classify Pluto—as a planet or a dwarf planet.

NEBULA 1995 Hubble Photographs Pillars of Gas and Dust in the Eagle Nebula The iconic image of the “Pillars of Creation” exhibits the superior imaging power of the Hubble Space Telescope. January 5, 2015  Hubble Space Telescope Revisits the Iconic Pillars of CreationVisible and infrared images of immense towers of gas and dust highlight 20 years of improvements in Hubble capabilities. In celebration of its 25th anniversary, Hubble was once again pointed toward the Eagle Nebula, some 6,500 light-years away. Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), which replaced the WFPC2 used for the original image released in 1995, revealed a sharper, wider view of the region. In the visible light image, bright, young stars just out of the field of view illuminate the iconic pillars of dense gas and dust. Streamers of gas are driven off the pillars by intense ultraviolet radiation from the hot stars. The infrared image reveals details that are completely invisible in the original image: young stars forming deep within the pillars. While visible light from these stars cannot penetrate their thick cocoons of gas and dust, infrared light passes through it freely.The images highlight the tremendous capabilities of the 25-year-old Hubble Space Telescope and the benefits of regular servicing missions. The WFC3 was installed during the fifth and final servicing mission in 2009.

UNIVERSE AGE 1998 Astronomers Announce that the Universe Is Accelerating, Driven by a Mysterious Dark Energy. April 26, 2001 First Direct Visual Evidence of Planet Growth Released Planet formation is a hazardous process. Pictures from the Hubble telescope are giving astronomers the first direct visual evidence for the growth of planetary “building blocks” inside the dusty disks of young stars in the Orion Nebula, a giant “star factory” near Earth. But these snapshots also reveal that the disks are being “blowtorched” by a blistering flood of ultraviolet radiation from the region’s brightest star, making planet formation extremely difficult.

DEEP FIELD 2004 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Astronomers use Hubble to look back in time with humanity’s deepest portrait of the visible universe. September 25, 2012 eXtreme Deep Field Hubble’s XDF image reaches much fainter galaxies and includes very deep exposures.






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